320x200: Artist group founded in 1995, consists of a social, political and technical interventionist cell. More recent work is concerned with the current political situation in Austria and the issue of globalisation.

Ablinger, Franky (*1967): Journalist and artist, member of the group monochrom. Lives and works in Vienna and Lucerne, Switzerland.

Achternbusch, Herbert (*1938): Avant-garde filmmaker, artist and writer

Adamski, Hans Peter (*1940): Born James Richard Adamski; American Photo-Realist. Father of Jerry Zachary Adamski.

Adamski, Jerry Zachary (*1968): American electro-acoustic musician

Adenauer, Konrad (1876-1967): German politician (Christian Democratic Union), first chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949-1963

Alechinsky, Pierre (*1927): Belgian painter between Surrealism and Expressionism, joined the Brussels-based COBRA group in 1949; moved to Paris in 1951.

Ambros, Wolfgang (*1952): Austrian singer-songwriter, most successful proponent of 'Austropop' in the 1970s (with 'A Mensch Möcht I Bleibn'). Lives in Vienna.

Arena: Alternative culture centre and venue in Vienna

Artmann, H.C. (1921-2000): Austrian writer and translator. Best known for his dialect poems ('Med Ana Schwoazzn Dintn'). Due to the difficulty his work presents, not frequently translated into English ('Under The Cover Of A Hat'; Quartet Books, 1985).

Baader-Meinhof Group: See RAF

Bachmann, Ingeborg (1926-1973): Austrian poet and writer ('Malina', 'Three Paths To The Lake')

Badovinac, Zdenka (*1958): Curator and director of the Moderna Galerija/Ljubljana Museum of Modern Art since 1987. Lives and works in Ljubljana.

Baedecker: A long-established series of German guide books; the word is often used as a synonym for 'guide book'.

Bannister, Allan (*1953): Musician. Bass player with the band Favourite Mishearings. Solo projects in the fields of sampling and plunderphonics. Runs the Larkin label. Lives in Berlin and Dublin.

Barfuss, Ina (Margot Trautwein, *1956): German performance artist. Achieved fame with her city performance 'ARD, Das Deutsche Fernsehen. Ausdruckstanz Zu Ubiquitären TV-Signalen' – ARD, German Television. Expressive Dance For The Ubiquitous TV-Signals'.

Bargeld, Blixa (*1959): Since 1980 founder and lead singer of the group Einstürzende Neubauten. Since 1984 guitarist with the Bad Seeds. Numerous concert tours throughout Europe, North and South America, Australia and Japan. Works as a composer, writer, actor, singer, musician, performer and teacher in many areas of the performing arts.

Barvinek, Alfred (*1965): Austrian media-theorist, television artist and filmmaker. Lives in Vienna, Linz and Frankfurt.

Bechtold, Gottfried (*1947): Austrian artist (concept art, land art, minimal art, light installations)

Beikirchner, Konrad (*1947): Austrian dialect and Folk singer, one-hit-wonder with the Austropop ballad 'I Tram Di' at the end of the 1970s

Benesch, Thomas (*1961): Culture philosopher and conceptual specialist. Works as a journalist, inter alia, for the Austrian magazine 'Profil'. Lives and works in Vienna.

Berchtold, Sandra (*1942): German filmmaker. Became known primarily for her experimental animated films at the end of the 1970s.

Berger, Günther (*1938): Austrian artist, famous for his series of books on Nazi art and the radio series 'This Is Your Gott' (1989-1991)

Bernhard, Thomas (1931-1989): Austrian dramatist ('Heldenplatz'), writer and poet

Beuys, Joseph (1921-1986): German artist. In his sculptural work and painting Joseph Beuys ("everyone is an artist") developed artistic thought as the sensual-supernatural real act.

Bewegung 2. Juni: (Movement 2 June) Armed Berlin underground movement, active between 1972 and 1980

Bildzeitung: Largest German tabloid newspaper, published by Axel Springer Verlag

Billy: Shelf unit produced by the Swedish furniture company IKEA

Black: See black-blue coalition

Black-blue coalition: Austrian government coalition since 2000, formed by the ÖVP (party colour is black) and the FPÖ (party colour is blue)

Blonk, Christoph (*1959): Better known as Zaro Zaro. Austrian musician and performer. Lives and works in Cologne.

Blue: See black-blue coalition

Blumenau, Martin (*1960): Journalist. Moderator and editor in chief of the Austrian radio channel FM4 (see ORF).

Blumenschein, Tabea: Berlin artist and musician from the same circle as the band Genialen Dilettanten, works with Tödlichen Doris.

Böll, Heinrich (1917-1985): German author ('The Lost Honor Of Katherina Blum'). His work conveys a sharpened view of the everyday reality of war. Awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1972.

Bömmels, Peter (*1951): German painter associated with the Junge Wilde in Cologne. Former editor of the pop-culture magazine Spex.

Brandstätter-Schmitz, Elena (*1971): Journalist and social-scientist. Works at the project centre for women and gender research at Vienna University.

Brandt, Willy (1913-1992): German chancellor (Socialist) from 1969 to 1974

Brauer, Arik (*1929): Viennese painter and songwriter. Became popular in Austria in the 1970s with his paintings and a number of records in dialect.

Breitner, Paul (*1951): Former German footballer. Only German player to turn down playing in the World Cup 1978 for political reasons.

Breytenbach, Breyten (*1939): South-African writer, painter and anti-apartheid activist

Broniowski, Stefan: Austrian journalist and lector

Bruckmayr, Didi (Dietmar Bruckmayr, *1966): Performance artist, singer, video artist and social-scientist. Singer in the bands Fuckhead and Wipeout. Lives in Vienna and Linz.

Brus, Günter (*1938): Austrian painter, graphic designer and writer. One of the original proponents of Wiener Aktionismus. Lives in Graz.

Buchrieser, Franz (*1937): Austrian actor, famous for his role as television police inspector Kottan

Werner Büttner (*1954): German artist, has been teaching at the art college in Hamburg since 1990.

Butzmann, Frieder (*1954): Berlin musician and sound-collector associated with the band Genialen Dilletanten

Café Marat: Alternative literati café, run in the private apartment of Peter Ulbricht in the 7th District of Vienna between 1978 and 1979

Carpenter, Karen (1950-1983): American singer (The Carpenters)

Cave, Nick (*1957): Australian musician ('Birthday Party', Nick Cave And The Bad Seeds) and writer ('King Ink')

Celan, Paul (1920-1970): Writer. His works of poetry ('Fugue of Death') are considered to represent the height of German Classical Modernism.

KLF/K-Foundation: The Kopyright Liberation Front. Internationally active artists' collective. Primarily famous for attacks on the Hit Parade ('What Time is Love') and spectacular events, for instance the ritual burning of 1,000,000 pounds.

Club 2: Television discussion programme on ORF from the mid-1970s to the early 1990s. Gained significance in the entire German-speaking world, primarily due to the calibre of the guests invited to participate and the length of many programmes, which were open end.

Cohn-Bendit, Daniel (*1945): Politician in France and Germany, leader of the Green Party in the European Parliament. Significant activist in the 1968 student movement in Paris.

Cordoba: Argentinean town, venue of the 1978 football World Cup, where the Austrian team beat the Germans 3:2. Cordoba has since become synonymous with this historical sporting event in Austria.

Corti, Axel (1933-1993): Austrian film and stage director, radio broadcaster ('Der Schalldämpfer')

Dabney, Ted (*1953): Graphic designer and musician. He worked on the first soundtracks for computer games under his label Zen, including for Atari.

Dahn, Walter (*1954): German artist and painter associated with the group Mülheimer Freiheit

Danner, Gary: Austrian musician. In 1988 founded of Station Rose in collaboration with the artist Elisa Rose.

Danzer, Georg (*1946): Austrian singer-songwriter, since the end of the 1990s also famous as a member of Austria 3 with Wolfgang Ambros and Rainhard Fendrich. Lives in Vienna.

Das Zentral: German-Austrian interventionist art group, became known primarily for theatre productions in public space that attracted a great deal of attention.

David, Jacques-Louis (1943-1998): French writer, famous for his repetitive minimal narratives

Derrick: Extremely popular German television detective embodied by the actor Horst Tappert

Diederichsen, Diedrich (*1957): German (Pop-)journalist, culture-theorist and writer. 1988-2000 co-editor of 'Spex'.

DJ Ötzi (Gerry Friedle, *1971): Austrian entertainer, pan-European success with party music ('Anton Aus Tirol', 'Hey Baby')

Dokoupil, Jiri Georg (*1954): Painter, co-founder of Mülheimer Freiheit. Lives and works in Cologne and Santa Cruz de Tenerife.

Dordevic, Goran (1943-1994): Artist and culture philosopher. Lived in Ljubljana (now Slovenia) and Paris.

Drahdiwaberl: Viennese Fun-Rock band led by Stefan Weber. The band has had dozens of members over the course of its history, these included Falco.

Dreschke, Heinz (*1950): Editor of the literary magazine 'Streitschrift Für Ketzer'.

Dunnan, Fred (*1938): Artist and radio journalist. Worked from 1981-1994 under the pseudonym Colonel Small. Lives in Los Angeles.

EAV: Styrian rock-cabaret band founded in 1977. Major success with a broad public in the mid-1980s ('Ba-Ba-Banküberfall', 'Küss Die Hand, Schöne Frau') in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

Edlinger, Thomas (*1967): Viennese journalist and radio broadcaster; 'Im Sumpf', in collaboration with Fritz Ostermayer on FM4 (see ORF)

Ensslin, Gudrun (1940-1977): Member of Baader-Meinhof (see RAF)

Export, Valie (*1940): Media and performance artist, filmmaker, teaches at the Cologne Academy of Media Art. Lives in Cologne and Vienna.

Farocki, Harun (*1944): German avant-garde filmmaker. Starting in 1966, most of the films he has made are didactic documentaries, training and political agitation films inspired by the notion of non-parliamentary opposition. Later experimental and socio-political films.

Fassbinder, Rainer Werner (1945-1982): German filmmaker and actor. ('The Marriage Of Maria Braun', 'Berlin-Alexanderplatz')

Feddersen, Helga (1930-1990): German actor, including in the television comedy series 'Klimbim'

Flex: Alternative club in Vienna, venue for the Soft Egg Cafe at the end of 1990s

FPÖ: Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs; the Austrian Freedom Party. Right-wing populist political party, led by Jörg Haider from 1986-2000. Since 2000 in a coalition government with ÖVP (Austrian People's Party).

Fresacher, Gerhard (*1972): Painter and multi-talent, currently concentrating on stage set design

Fürlinger, Evelyn (*1975): Austrian artist, Philologist and translator. Member of the Group monochrom.

Gallagher, George (*1946): Social-romantic British stage director. Became famous as an underground literary figure in the 1970s when he posted short plays and prose in various parts of London.

Gappmayr, Heinz (*1925): Austrian artist, lives and works in Innsbruck

Gärtner, Klaus 'Grätsche' (*1956): German painter and actor. Member of the experimental theatre group Exchange. Lives and works in Stuttgart.

Gaye, Marvin (1939-1984): American Soul singer ('What's Going On')

Gebauer, Tonki (*1972): Musician in the field of new electronic music and computer artist. In 1998 he founded Edition Elektroklast, followed by his own label Resolve Ungeheuer. His artistic focus is on electronic music as well as the production of instruments/objects for tone-engineering.

Get To Attack: Initiative for Austrian artists and activists, aimed against the FPÖ participation in the government

Geniale Dilletanten, the: Named after an anthology published by Merve Verlag at the start of the 1980s, includes: Die Tödliche Doris, Einstürzende Neubauten, Sprung Aus Den Wolken, Thomas Kapielski, Schweinebucht.

Geo: German monthly nature and travel magazine

Gibson, William (*1948): American writer, became a major figure in the Cyberpunk movement with his novel 'Neuromancer'

Gonzalez-Torres, Felix (1957-1996): Cuban-born artist, lived in New York. His work has been shown in several major solo exhibitions, for example at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York (1995) or the Sprengler Museum in Hanover, Germany.

Grass, Günther (*1297): German writer. Member of Group 47. Writes lavishly baroque, often scandalous and shocking novels critical of the times ('The Tin Drum').

Grenzfurthner, Johannes (*1975): Austrian artist, journalist and filmmaker. Founder of the group monochrom.

Grothus, Ed: Peace and anti-atom bomb activist. He retired as a nuclear research worker during the Vietnam War (1969), following 20 years at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Owner of The Black Hole, a pacifist anti-atom monument comprised of a depot and point-of-sale for waste produced by nuclear research.

Grünpresse: Small alternative publishing house based in Dortmund, founded by the political writer Ulf Streele in 1982. It became famous with the publishing of Heiner Peter's controversial essay 'Minute Maiden' in 1986.

Günther, Arnold (*1955): Musician and composer. Famous for his collaborations with Fred Frith. His minimal opera 'Eine Anthropologin Auf Dem Mars' is based on the book by the neurologist Oliver Sacks 'An Anthropologist On Mars'. Lives and works in Copenhagen.

Gütersloh, Albert Paris (A. Conrad Kiehtreiber; 1887-1973): Painter and writer. Arik Brauer and Ernst Fuchs studied under him. Spiritual father of the Viennese school of Fantastic Realism.

Gwirkst: Small audio cassette label run by the Lower Austrian musician Rainer Gschwendtner (later famous for his collaboration with the group Slout)

Haider, Jörg: See FPÖ

Hainburg: Town west of Vienna. Hit the headlines due to the occupation of the Hainburg Au river basin in winter 1983/84 to prevent construction work on a proposed hydro-electric power station.

Hallervorden, Didi (*1935): German comedian. Enjoyed widespread popularity throughout the German-speaking countries due to several films (e.g. 'Der Schnuffler', appeared in English as 'Non-Stop Trouble With Spies').

Hallucination Company: Viennese comic rock band founded at the end of the 1970s. In the 1980s many people who played with Hallucination Company went on to become famous.

Handke, Amina (*1969): Austrian Artist, she works with various materials and media (audio/video, interior design, objects, theatrical props). She has realised and participated in a number of solo projects and group projects and exhibitions since 1990. Daughter of Peter Handke. Lives and works in Vienna.

Handke, Peter (*1942): Austrian writer ('Absence', 'The Weight Of The World')

Haribo: Hans Riegel, Bonn. German sweet manufacturer, particularly strong market presence with little jelly bears (Gummibärchen).

Heinz aus Wien: Austrian alternative band

Heller, André (Franz Heller, *1947): Multimedia artist, entertainer, singer and songwriter, writer. Known for projects that "sing their praises to human creativity and imagination", e.g. Circus Roncalli, Begnadete Körper, Sein Und Schein.

Hellmer, Joris (*1974): Austrian Hip-Hop musician, member of the group Trigger. Achieved recognition for activities organised as part of the demonstrations against the ÖVP-FPÖ coalition government.

Hensbach, Jürgen (1939-1990): German stage actor, he played a central role in the rise in significance of the theatre in Bochum in the 1960s.

Henze, Hans-Werner (*1941): German documentary filmmaker and screenplay author (not to be confused with the composer of the same name). Known for extensive documentaries at the beginning of the 1970s. At the end of the 1970s, intensive collaboration with the television filmmaker Rainer Erler ('Operation Ganymed', 1977 and 'Fleisch', 1979).

Herold, Georg (*1952): German painter, object and performance artist and fashion designer. Since 1997 co-editor of 'Jetzt!' (youth supplement in the 'Süddeutsche Zeitung').

Hirsch, Ludwig (*1946): Austrian actor and singer-songwriter ('Dunkelgraue Lieder'). Lives in Vienna.

Hoeness, Uli (*1951): Former German footballer. FC Bayern-München legend. Currently manager of Bayern-München.

Hofer, der: Figure from the Austropop hit 'Da Hofa' by Wolfgang Ambros (lyrics by Joesi Prokopetz)

Hofer, Markus (*1967): Also known under the pseudonym Viehdieb (rustler). Plays in the Reggae formation The Buccaneers.

Hörbig, Rainhardt (*1951): German painter, lives and works in Vienna and Klosterneuburg. Famous for his series 'Lachsberg'.

Horch, Jürgen (*1959): Actor and sculptor, proponent of the Junge Wilde in Berlin and Vienna. Has been living in Japan since 1994.

Horkheimer, Max (1895-1973): Neo-Marxist sociologist and philosopher, proponent of the Frankfurt School. Famous for 'Dialectic Of Enlightenment' (with Theodor W. Adorno).

Imura, Taka: Japanese artist and filmmaker ('DADA '62')

Jeanson, Blandine (1944-1999): French actor. Lived briefly with Thomann in Paris.

Jenkins, Alan: English musician, copywriter, editor of the fanzine 'Spot the Bear', co-founder of the bands The Deep Freeze Mice, The Creams, Ruth's Refrigerator, The Chrysanthemums. Runs the Cordelia label

Jeschke, Wolfgang (*1936): German journalist and writer ('Midas'). Editor of the Science Fiction series at Heyne.

Jorge XIV (*1955): Artist. Disappeared following his performance 'Bewusst Obdachlos in Bielefeld' (Deliberately Homeless in Bielefeld; Munich 1988).

Jorn, Asger (Ulrich Herboldt, *1955): German painter and writer; not to be confused with the Dane Asger Jorn, who was excluded from the international situationists in 1961 and whose name he selected as a pseudonym.

Junge Wilde: (Lit. the young and wild) Stylistic term coined to describe a movement among painters in Germany in the early 1980s who alluded to New Wave and Punk.

K1: See Kommune 1

Karner, Heinz (*1938-1998): Reactionary Austrian writer and journalist

Kästner, Erich (1899-1974): German writer, primarily known for his children's books ('Emil And The Detectives')

Kellis, Melanie (*1948) and Charlton (1938-1997): Artists and art-dealers who worked as a couple. They ran their own gallery in New York between 1970 and 1990.

Kesey, Ken (1935-2001): American writer ('One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest') and cult-figure, founder of the activist group The Merry Pranksters

Kippenberger, Martin (1953-1997): Artist (cf. Junge Wilde). Lived in Cologne and Vienna.

Kirch, Leo (*1926): Conservative German television mogul (Beta Film, SAT1, Premiere). His business is based primarily on the marketing of film rights.

Kléber, Lucienne (*1939): French writer and philosopher

Knappsack: Berlin Punk-Pop formation with catchy melodies and critical lyrics; generally acknowledged as part of the German New Wave movement. Best-known hit: 'Käfer Käfer' (1984).

Kolonovits, Christian (*1952): Austrian composer ('V.S.O.P.' – The Vienna Symphony Orchestra Project) and music producer. Has written arrangements for W. Ambros, Boney M. and others.

Kommissar Rex: Police series on television, German-Austrian co-production. Set in Vienna, the leading role is played by an immaculately trained police Alsation dog.

Kommune 1: In the 1960s the K1 experimented with a new lifestyle in West Berlin, and counts as a symbol for and part of the myth behind the 1968 movement.

Koncilia, Friedl (*1948): Footballer, goal-keeper of the Austrian national team in the 1980s

Kos, Wolfgang (*1949): Historian, journalist, editor at the radio station Ö1 (ORF), lecturer at the Viennese Institute of Contemporary History

Kraushofer, Martin (*1971): Programmer, hobby-musician

Kreisler, Georg (*1922): Composer, writer, stand-up comedian. Worked writing soundtracks for Hollywood films during his time as an émigré in the USA. Returned to Vienna in 1955 as an American citizen. Author of numerous plays, television screenplays, television games and songs ('Poisoning Pigeons In The Park', as sung by Tom Lehrer). Lives in Basle.

Krenz, Frank (*1962): Artist, culture-philosopher and writer ('The Day Before'). G.P. Thomann's assistant since 1988. Has held various teaching posts, including visiting lecturer at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. Lives in Essen and Vienna.

Kreuzer, Franz: Austrian journalist and politician. Minister of Health under Chancellor Sinowatz, moderator for the ORF, including of 'Club 2'.

Król, Joachim (*1957): German film actor ('Zugvögel', aka 'Train Birds')

Kronenzeitung: The Austrian daily newspaper with the largest circulation. The political line cannot be described in just a few words, however the tendency is conspicuously conservative to right-wing populist when major issues are addressed.

Krylov, Victor (*1941): Experimental physicist and writer, father of the theory of cyclical transformation

Kühn, Udo (*1939): Founding member of Kommune 1, from which he severed himself in May 1967.

Kujau, Konrad (1938-2000): Came to public attention for his forgery of the so-called Hitler Diaries and the subsequent sale of the diaries to the weekly 'Stern' in 1983

Kummerer, Christoph (*1974): Artist and musician. 1996-99 worked at Public Netbase in Vienna. 1996 founding of 1998 founding member of the internet label '' (Video Positive Liverpool). Lives in Vienna and Berlin.

LaDalle, Jacques (1903-1972): French sociologist and socialist local politician in Paris. Supported the student protests in 1968 at Nanterre University.

Laibarös, Johnny (Werner Leistner; *1970): Austrian defamation activist and interventionist artist. Also known for his 'Austroarttrotttraktat' (1996) and his action 'Feuersalamanderzucht Und Kontrollgesellschaftliche Lebenspraxis' (Fire Salamander Breeding And Control-Society Lifestyles; 1998).

Langhans Teufel: This short-lived music formation comprised of Kummerer, Stepanek and Thomann takes its name from Rainer Langhans and Fritz Teufel, two members of Kommune 1.

In the late-1990s the term 'teuff' came to be used among Viennese electro-musicians as an aesthetic description with connotations of failed and de facto foolish.

Lapicque, Charles (1898-1988): French Painter and botanist, from 1943 he dedicated himself solely to painting. He developed his own figurative and intensely colourful style having been influenced by Cubism and medieval art. Thomann's live-in partner in Paris. At an old age he became a significant figure in the struggle for the social recognition of homosexuals.

Laundromess: Bar established in SoHo, New York, in 1974 at a former laundrette. Known for the Legga Happenings in 1976 and 1977. Was shut down in 1978 following a controversial police raid.

Leary, Timothy (1920-1996): American philosopher, scientist, psychologist and drug-guru

Lehrer Dr. Specht: Figure from the German television series 'Unser Lehrer Dr. Specht'

Leistner, Werner (*1970): Also known as Johnny Laibarös

Lhomme, Irina (*1950): A Parisian intellectual groupie during her youth, later news producer at the television station France2

Lomographers: Group of artists who invented Lomography and made the old Russian LOMO camera popular in the early 1990s

Lorenz, Peter: German politician, was leader of and star candidate for the Berlin CDU in 1975. Kidnapped by the Movement 2 June (Bewegung 2. Juni) and subsequently set free in exchange for the release of 6 imprisoned terrorists.

Lumbach, Paul (1942-1989): German Musician and composer. Produced electronic music in the 1960s before moving to classical music. Head conductor of the Hessischen Rundfunkorchester from 1982.

Lumbach, Paul (1942-1985): Austrian performance and intervention artist. Significant member of the group Das Zentral.

Lüthi, Urs (*1947): Swiss artist. Since 1994, professor at the Kassel art college. 2001 he represented Switzerland at the Biennale in Venice. Lives in Munich and Kassel.

Macke, August (1887-1914): German Expressionist painter and founding member of the Der Blaue Reiter group of artists in Munich

Mammuth, Alivia (*1959): Austrian video artist. Lives and works in Graz.

Marchart, Oliver (*1968): Political analyst and philosopher. Lives in Vienna.

McDowell, Oregon John (*1950): American artist. Worked with the experimental theatre group Surveillance Camera Players in New York, among other projects. Lives in Toronto, Canada.

McKenna, Craig (*1940): American Performance artist, famous for her metal and wire installations. Has been living and working in Edinburgh, Scotland since 1987.

McKenna, Terence (*1946): Ethno-botanist, philosopher and historian; main field of interest is psycho-active substances and their history

Media Markt: German chain of stores for consumer electronics with numerous branches throughout Europe

Mego: Viennese record label, specialises in releasing experimental electronic music

Meins, Holger (1941-1974): German filmmaker, from 1971 member of the Baader-Meinhof group. Took his own life in prison by means of hunger strike.

Meiseneder, Herbert (*1943): German experimental musician and spiritualist painter, famous for his experimental sound-only plays. Lives in London.

Merve: (Merve Verlag) Berlin-based intellectual publishing house responsible for German translations of Jean Baudrillard, Gilles Deleuze and Paul Virilio, among others

Minsky, Marvin (*1927): Professor for electrical engineering and computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston. Also a writer, famous for his research in the field of artificial Intelligence.

Minus Delta T: Group of ethnological artists founded in 1978, consisting of Mike Hentz, Karel Dudesek, Christian Vanderborght, Wolfgang Hoffmann, among others. Primarily known due to the Bangkok Project ('Minus Delta T: Transport Of The Stone From Wales To The Himalayas').

Mock, Alois (*1934): Politician. Leader of the conservative Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) from 1979-89. Austrian minister for foreign affairs from 1987-95. Criticised as the first Western politician to speak out in favour of the recognition of the sovereign status of Croatia and Slovenia.

Monochrom: "The media-mogulery" (self-definition). Monochrom is a publication-art-theory(-cocooning)-DIY collective with leanings towards direct intervention and its GHQ in Vienna. Monochrom was founded in 1992/93 and works in the most varied of artistic and pop-culture fields. Monochrom publishes an annual magazine ("Monochrom: an ontological sanitation portfolio"), produces short films and serves as "a publisher and an organ of destruction" for music and websites.

Mooshammer, Rudolf: Fashion designer, founder of the fashion label MCM, society figure. Lives in Munich.

Morauer, Margot (*1927): Austrian poet, famous for her volume of poems 'Auf Beinen' (Lit. On Legs; regrettably, has not yet been translated into English)

Mordbuben AG: Austrian punk band at the end of the 1970s

Moretti, Tobias: Austrian actor, gained a broad following with his role as police inspector Moser in the series Kommissar Rex

Moser, Hans (Jean Julier; 1880-1964): Popular Austrian actor, especially loved for his roles in numerous comedy films from the 1930s to the 60s ('Maskerade', 'Hallo Dienstmann')

Mühl, Otto (*1925): Painter, proponent of Wiener Aktionismus. Between 1960 and 1971 created material paintings and junk-sculptures. Little artistic work followed this period as he concentrated his attention on the "action-analytical commune" at Friedrichshof (Burgenland), which was dissolved in 1990.

Muhri, Franz (1924-2001): Leader of the Austrian Communist Party (KPÖ) from 1965-1990

Mülheimer Freiheit: Group of artists. The 1980 exhibition Mülheimer Freiheit & Interesting Paintings From Germany marked a turning point in the German artworld and introduced a neo-expressionist generation after Beuys, whose work was concerned painting and the rediscovery of German currents before the First World War.

Nabermayer, Gudrun (*1949): RAF sympathiser in the 1970s. She went on to study political and social sciences. Publication of numerous texts on the relationship between East and West Germany in the 1970s and 80s. Lives and works in Bochum.

Nägeli, Harald (*1939): Swiss graffiti artist, known as the 'Sprayer of Zurich'

Negroponte, Nicholas: American scientist and writer. One of the co-founders of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Laboratory. Writes, inter alia, for 'Wired'.

Neidhart, Didi (also Heitzer Fred): Austrian musician ('Wipeout') and journalist for 'Skug'

Nüchtern, Klaus (*1961): Culture journalist for the Viennese city guide 'Falter'

Oehlen, Albert (*1954): German artist (cf. Junge Wilde). Lives in Cologne and La Palma.

Öhner, Vrääth (*1965): Culture theorist (film and media theory). Lives in Vienna.

ORF: Abbreviation for 'Austrian Rundfunk' (Austrian Broadcasting Corporation). State-owned broadcasting service with two national television stations (ORF1, ORF2) and numerous radio stations. Hitradio Ö3: Mainstream-Pop and Rock channel, has the highest number of listeners in Austria. Ö1: Classical music, culture, documentaries. Ö-Regional: Regional service tailored to local requirements, primarily folk music and popular hits. FM4: Alternative-mainstream radio station. Until the end of the 1990s FM4 was almost the only source of electronic media in Austria.

Orridge, Genesis P. (Neil Megson; *1950): Self-professed 'cultural engineer', musician and artist living in London

Orsolic, Hans: Austrian boxer, acquired popularity among a younger audience in the mid-1980s with his autobiographical Austropop song 'Mei Patschertes Leben' (My Messed-Up Life). Enjoys cult status.

Ostermayer, Fritz (*1956): Artist, musician and radio presenter on Ö3, later FM4 (see ORF). With Thomas Edlinger in the programme 'Im Sumpf'. Lives in Vienna.

ÖVP: Österreichische Volkspartei – Austrian People's Party. Conservative party, has only not been represented in the government for 16 years since 1945. Since 2000 the ÖVP has held the chancellorship in a coalition government with the FPÖ.

Paap, Jochem: (also Speedy J) Dutch DJ and music producer

Palatschinken: Austrian term for pancake; the German equivalent is 'Pfannkuchen'.

Park, Para Ernest (*1959): Spanish painter and action artist. Lives in Barcelona.

Patzak, Peter (*1945): Film director; television work (various screenplays, the series 'Kottan Ermittelt', 1976-83) and films in Austria and Germany

Pauline, Mark: Founder of the industrial art label Survival Research Labs in the 1970s, which put on a number of spectacular machine performances

Penderecki, Krysztof (*1933): Polish composer. Penderecki counts today as one of the major proponents of a temperate modernity.

Perch, Hannah (*1945): American artist, famous for her sculptures of moulded concrete. Lives and works in Los Angeles.

Pfäff, Gunther (*1970): High-profile member of the Green Alternative Student Union. Activist in the Austrian political-action group Get To Attack.

Picq, Jean-Noel (*1924): French psychologist, sociologist and writer. Has been working as a psychoanalyst since the 1980s and teaches at Rouen University.

Playmobil: German toy manufacturers

Postbauer-Heng: Bavarian town

Préscut, Nathalie (*1962): French culture-theorist. Famous for her controversial book 'L'Écriture Prochaine'.

Pritt: Glue manufacturers

Pronev, Prako (*1964): Russian writer and video artist. Lives in St. Petersburg.

Pryne, David (*1943): Pop musician and artist. Lead singer of the group Flyrr. Lives in London and Birmingham.

Public Netbase: (t0/Institute for New Culture Technologies) Viennese culture facility, a forum for net-art as well as politically motivated and academic events centred on information technology

Quinn, Jonathan (*1968): Artist, graphic designer, translator and occasional art correspondent. Lives in Vienna. Donated blood to Thomann.

Radio Orange: Viennese community radio station since 1998; "Orange 94.0 – Independent Radio in Vienna"

RAF: (Rote Armee Fraktion; Red Army Faction) Urban guerrilla-style Group, responsible for continuing the West German protest movement of the 1960s in a militant manner and bringing it to public attention between 1970 and 1998.

Rainer, Arnulf (*1929): Painter. Major proponent of abstract informal art in Austria, primarily through his overpaintings (of graphics and photographs). Associated with Wiener Aktionismus.

Ransmayr, Christoph (*1954): Austrian storyteller and essayist. Lives in Ireland.

Rascot, Isabelle (1943-1968): Journalist for 'L'Humanité', Thomann's live-in partner in Paris

Red Crayola, the: In phases also 'The Red Krayola'; experimental band centred around the Pop-intellectual Mayo Thompson. Founded in 1967, since when it has been continually active in different constellations. House band of the British group of artists Art & Language.

Renard, Jacques (*1945): French cameraman, Film and television director

Resetarits, Kathrin (*1973): Austrian filmmaker. Lives in Vienna.

Resetarits, Lukas (*1947): Austrian stand-up comedian and actor. Played the central role in the television series 'Kottan Ermittelt'.

Rhiz: Viennese bar for New Electronic Music, was linked to the Charizma label through the owner

Richter, Beatrice (*1947): German actor

Robnik, Drehli (Andreas Robnik, *1967): Austrian film theorist, entertainer and DJ. Lives in Amsterdam and Vienna.

Roda Roda (Alexander Sándor Rosenfeld; 1872-1945): Satirist, playwright, comedian. Lived in Paris, Munich and Berlin.

Rosachrom: Viennese band comprised of the musicians Franz Dorfner, Fred Jakesch and Heinrich Pichler, existed from 1980-1982

Roskilde: Danish town, venue every year to one of the largest music festivals in Europe

Rubinowitz, Tex (*1964): German-born artist, cartoonist and musician. Has been living in Vienna since 1984. Draws cartoons regularly for the Vienna city guide 'Falter' and the Hamburg weekly newspaper 'Die Zeit'.

Rühm, Gerhard (*1930): Writer, founding member of the Wiener Gruppe, a circle of experimental Austrian writers. Lives in Cologne and Vienna.

Russwurm, Vera (*1959): Journalist and moderator. Since 1995 moderator of the highly popular boulevard show 'Vera' on the ORF.

R. Varencz, Ainget (*1951): Culture philosopher and journalist. Writes regularly for colour supplements, including for 'Die Zeit', the 'Neue Zürcher Zeitung' and 'Du'.

Sagrotan: Detergent only available on the German market, produced by the concern Reckitt Benckiser

Salomé (*1956): Berlin painter associated with the Junge Wilde

Sandback, Fred (*1943): American Artist. His work is concerned with producing sculpture with no interior and no volume but which is nevertheless perceived as three-dimensional. Lives in New York.

Sandoz: Chemical factory in Schweizerhalle near Basle, Switzerland. The accident with highly toxic emissions of 1st November 1986, when the city of Basle only narrowly avoided a major catastrophe, put Sandoz in the headlines. Merged with CIBA to form Novartis.

Sankt Pölten, Gigi (Michaela Straubig, *1964): Artist who created a second identity for herself in the 1980s as Gigi Sankt Pölten to cause confusion in the Austrian gallery scene.

Seesslen, Georg (*1948): Writer and critic, has occasionally also made documentaries for television

Semperit: Austrian tyre factory

Serres, Michel (*1930): French philosopher and writer; focus on communication. Holds professorships at the universities of Clermont-Ferrand, the Sorbonne in Paris and Stanford (USA), member of the Académie Francaise since 1990.

Shifz: Austrian artist group primarily concerned with the relationship between people and machines; an interdisciplinary circle of researchers and artists formed around Shifz called Artasylum organised, for example, the Cocktail Robot Competition

Simone: Popular Austrian singer. She has represented Austria in The Eurovision Song Contest.

Sinowatz, Fred (*1929): Historian and leader of the SPÖ (Austrian Social Democratic Party) from 1983-88; Chancellor of Austria from 1983 to 1986

Sukop, Jirí (*1936): A former butcher in Vienna until the end of the 1980s, now runs an environmentally friendly bio-farm and an alternative seminar centre in Kottes, Lower Austria

Schleyer Kidnapping: The manager of Daimler-Benz, Hans-Martin Schleyer was kidnapped and murdered by the RAF in 1977.

Schlingensief, Christoph (*1960): German stage director (Volksbühne Berlin) and filmmaker. Famous for his interventions and actions in public space. Lives in Berlin.

Schmelzeimer, Resi (Eva Glabach, *1960): Video artist, teaches at the centre for Art and Media Technology in Karlsruhe. Lives in Munich.

Schmidt, Harald (*1957): German comedian and host of a late-night talkshow on the German channel SAT1

Schnabel, Julian (*1951): Neo-expressionist American Painter. One of the Superstars of the art scene in the 1980s.

Schneider, Frank Apunkt (*1969): Pop-theorist and Artist. Member of the group monochrom. Lives in Bamberg, Germany.

Schneider, Robert (*1961): Writer. His best selling novel 'Schlafes Bruder' (1992; has not appeared in English) tells the story of the protagonist's slow death due to self-imposed sleep-deprivation.

Scholze, Jacqueline (1957-2001): Film theorist and painter ('Stills')

Schwarzkogler, Rudolf (1940-1969): Artist, proponent of Wiener Aktionismus

Stark, Thornton (1913-1986): Psychiatrist and psychologist. Was one of the first doctors to employ painting as a form of therapy; responsible for having made 'art brut' known. Lived in London.

Steeger, Ingrid (*1947): German Actor, famous since the mid-1970s for her role in the television comedy series 'Klimbim'

Steinhauer, Erwin (*1951): Austrian Actor and stand-up comedian. 1974 co-founder of the satirical comedy group Keif. Has worked for film and on television.

Steirischer Herbst: Annual culture festival in the Austrian province of Styria with a focus on literature, the performing arts and visual arts

Stepanek, Martin (*1975): Musician. Lives in Vienna. Member of the new electronic musicians' collective lo-res.

Sterling, Bruce (*1954): Writer ('The Artificial Kid', 'Mirrorshades: The Cyberpunk Anthology'), journalist ('Wired') and freedom-of-information activist

Strauss, Franz-Josef (1915-1988): Minister-president of Bavaria from 1978 to 1988, leader of the conservative Bavarian CSU (Christian Socialist Party)

Ströwe, Ecki (1912-1981): Actor and stage director ('Renn, Mädchen' and 'Das Kleine Tor'). Lived in Vienna.

Stuckrad-Barre, Benjamin von (*1975): German journalist and satirist

t0: See Public Netbase

Testcard: Pop theory and culture magazine based in Mainz around Martin Büsser, Johannes Ullmaier, Tine Plesch and Roger Behrens

Tödliche Doris, die: Berlin art and music group. Consists of Wolfang Müller, Nikolaus Utermöhlen and Käthe Kruse; numerous happenings, exhibitions and audio objects

Tofix Man: Figure from the advertisement for the Tofix brand of lavatory cleaner

Tolar, Günther (*1939): Film director and screenplay author. In the 1980s he moderated the television quiz show 'Made in Austria' on the ORF. Works with dedication to help AIDS-sufferers.

Ton, Steine, Scherben: German Polit-(Post)(Agit)Rockband (with Rio Reiser as the lead singer), in the 1970s, famous for the lyric: "Macht kaputt was euch kaputt macht" (Break what's trying to break you)

Torres: See Gonzalez-Torres, Felix

Trapp, Peter von: Austrian ambassador to the KLF/K-Foundation

Trio (1980-1985): German pop group (Stephan Remmler, Gert Krawinkel, Peter Behrens), part of the German New Wave movement in the early 1980s which propagated a revival in the use of German lyrics in pop music

Tsche Min, Horst (Horst Urbanek; *1943): Artist and social-scientist, former lead singer of the band Männer In Nassen Kleidern, head of the situationist Pop-Institut Eva Zucker in Zurich

Tuareg, Jaros (Jaros Vasaros; *1959): Hungarian neo-situationist and self-styled "culture revolutionary". Since 1996 editor of the satirical magazine 'Marktlage. Wissenswertes Und Erheiterndes Für Neoliberale Faschisten' (Market Situation. Useful Knowledge And Entertainment For Neo-Liberal Fascists). Lives and works in Hannover.

U4: Discotheque in Vienna, legendary for its heyday in the 1980s

Udovicic, René (*1973): Austrian alternative filmmaker famed for his trashy comical political farces (especially 'Mundtot'; Lit. Mouth-Dead, which has yet to be subtitled for the international market)

Ulknudel: German popular term for screwball slapstick usually performed by women

Unternull, Jack (Johannes Zellberger, *1948): Austrian photographer. Lives in Frankfurt.

Väth, Sven (*1964): German techno DJ and music producer

Vega, Alan (*1948): Musician and artist, lead singer of the band Suicide.

Vesper, Bernward (1938-1971): In his autobiographical fictional essay 'Die Reise', Vesper attempts to come to terms with his father Will Vesper, a poet arrested by the nazis, and the painful separation from his wife Gudrun Ensslin.

VOEST Alpine Linz: Major Austrian steelworks

Volksstimme: Left-wing Austrian weekly newspaper, emerged from the daily newspaper of the same name published by the Austrian Communist Party (KPÖ)

Waldheim, Kurt (*1918): 1971-1981 General Secretary of the UNO, 1986-1992 Austrian President. Waldheim was isolated internationally for the role he played during the Nazi era. The controversy surrounding his past cast doubt on the popular theory that Austria had been "Hitler's first victim" for the first time and led to a re-appraisal of Austria's role in the Second World War.

Walther, Franz Erhard (*1939): German artist, has held a professorship at the College of Fine Arts in Hamburg since 1970

Weberpalz, Gernot (*1961): Swiss writer; famous for his novel 'Bad Attitude', in which he describes two hours of his life in minuscule detail

Ween: Rock band from Pennsylvania (USA) centred around Gene Ween (Aaron Freeman) and Dean Ween (Micky Melchiondo)

Weibel, Peter (*1945): Artist, curator, art- and media-theorist

Werner, Morgan (*1965): American architect. Works in the field of the conception and design of experimental organically structured buildings. Werner's mention in Thomann's action 'Selbstporträt Als Ikearegal' (Self-Portrait As An Ikea Shelf) is totally random.

Wiener Aktionismus: (Lit. Viennese Actionism) Austrian strand of the Happening and Fluxus movement between 1960 and 1970, stood in close contact to the literary avant-garde (Wiener Gruppe): G. Brus, H. Nitsch, O. Muehl and A. Frohner

Wiener Gruppe: A circle of Austrian experimental writers that emerged from the Viennese Art Club founded in 1946: F. Achleitner, H.C. Artmann (until 1958), K. Bayer, G. Rühm and Oswald Wiener (from 1954). Had its roots in literary Expressionism, Surrealism and Dadaism.

Wiener, Oswald (Also Evo Präkogler; *1935): Experimental writer, cybernetics expert, jazz trumpeter. Member of the Wiener Gruppe.

Wientzek, Richard (*1970): Artist and visualist; his projects are concerned with the "Resoulment" of painting. Lives and works in Kaufing, Upper Austria.

Yakusata, Hoki (*1945): Japanese artist. Famous for his collaboration with the politically motivated performance group Year Dread (1982-1986). Lives and works in Boston.

YTONG: A building material firm and brick manufacturer; the Central European equivalent of 'breeze blocks'

Zeit, die: Hamburg weekly newspaper (

Zeller, Bibiane (*1928): Repertoire actor, member of the ensemble at the Vienna Burg Theatre. Lives in Vienna.

Zinggl, Wolfgang (*1954): Former Austrian Federal Curator, artist in the group "WochenKlausur". "Art should intervene more concretely in political, social and scientific fields." Lives in Vienna.

Zobernig, Heimo (*1958): Concept artist. Has held a teaching post at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna since 2000. Primarily concerned with issues addressing art in its social and institutional context.

Zwang, Elena (*1952): Actor, recently in the ensemble at the Volksbühne in Berlin. Lives in Potsdam, Germany.